Showing posts from April, 2020

Genetic Engineering in Plants to Combat Acid Soil Toxicity

Genetic engineering enables us to displace genes among species. The newly incorporated foreign gene(s) in the host genome can create new trait(s) by regulating the expression of different genes and transcription factors.Recent advances in plant molecular biology provided superior genotypes are useful for enhanced production of food and other plant based valuable materials.Aluminumstress tolerant transgenic plants are also developed by overexpressing different genes. In particular, the malate synthase and citrate synthase genes displayed enhanced Aluminum tolerance by activating malate and citrate excretion. Notably, the transgenic plants modified for the expression of enzymes involved in malate and citrate synthesis showed increased organic anion concentration in tissues and Al3+ resistance.Molecular characterization of acid soil stress tolerance mechanism is critical to develop efficient breeding materials to make high yielding varieties under stress environments.  Number of genes and

Molecular dynamics simulation: A tool to view a system at the atomic level

Computer simulation mimics the behaviour of a real system. Simulation can verify a theoretical model which cannot be solved analytically. Simulations can also complement experiments to get a detailed view of a system. In some cases, experiments are impossible to perform, modeling and simulation is the only choice. The first and crucial step towards simulations is to develop a model for the system. The more accurate the model, the closer the simulation to a real system. It is essential to validate a model by comparing simulation results with the experimental results. The comparisons between experimental, simulation and theoretical results help build a better model. Once we have a good model of a system, we can explore a wide range of properties and characteristics of the system. Molecular dynamics (MD) technique, which is based on the principle of classical mechanics is used to simulate a wide variety of systems, from a single crystal to a macromolecule such as DNA, RNA. For an er

Nano Technology, Today and Tomorrow

Nanotechnology, as we know, is an umbrella term used to define technologies working on nanoscales for utilization in this transformed world. Nanoparticles (NPs), the basic parts of nanotechnology, are atomic or molecular aggregates with sizes varying from 1nm to 100nm. In Nanoscience, we manipulate matters at their atomic or molecular level and discover a whole new material with properties totally different from the mother matter or more powerful than it. The world is facing significant changes in day to day life, be it with the environment, medical sector, automobile sector or any other field and to cope with these, Nanoscience or Nanotechnology is the need of the hour. In today's world, thinking of any innovation sans Nanotechnology is impossible. Nanoparticles can be synthesized either chemically or biologically, naturally or artificially. In this particular technology, we repair control, construct and monitor at the molecular level of any systems. Nanoparticles are of different

Storage of Seeds

Storage of Seeds: A Standard Protocol It’s really important and essential to maintain the seed in good physical and psychological conditions from the time it has been harvested until the time they are being planted. Also, storage of seed is necessary to protect them from pest, disease and to converse them until they germinate for subsequent crop production.  Before storing a seed, the variety of seeds should be well understood. Seeds are generally categorized into the following types:  Orthodox: Seeds that can be dried without damage maintaining low moisture contents and it should be much lower than those they would normally achieve in nature. Their longevity increases with reductions in both moisture content and temperature over a wide range of storage environments.  Recalcitrant: Seeds that do not survive drying to any large degree, and are thus not amenable for long term storage. Intermediate: Seeds that are more tolerant of desiccation than recalcitrant, though that tolerance is mu

Is Quantum Computing the Ultimate of Artificial Intelligence?

Artificial Intelligence now-a-days plays a significant role in modern computer science and engineering, as the ultimate objective of the computer science research community is to develop a humanoid that can act perfectly as a human with human like intelligence. The problem undoubtedly, is many fold complex of the present state-of-the art status and needs serious thought. The task is mammoth and needs collective work. It is very difficult to define Human intelligence. However, the power of decision making and problem solving is the back bone of human intelligence, and artificial intelligence is practically the same power possessed by a machine. For artificial intelligence, a machine should be fully capable of generating solutions of a problem or should be capable generating decisions under a certain situation. This generation must be unambiguous, unique and fast. Such generations should be based on online learning. As the designed humanoid is preferred to act as a human, we m

What is the importance of microbiology?

Importance of Microbiology Microbiology can be considered as both basic and applied science. It deals with the very details of microscopic organisms that surrounds us. Be it physiological, chemical or biochemical, Microbiology is a discipline that always gives us the whole understanding of the universe of the minute organisms.  On the other hand, as an applied science, it has an essential role in the development of various industries in the fields of biotechnology, medicine and agriculture. Microbiology as a subject of high relevance and scope, students can choose industrial, academic or research career. If 19th and 20th century was the era of chemistry, the 21st century undoubtedly is the era of biology, and no field of biology is complete without the understanding of microorganisms. Being one of the best universities in India, Techno India University, West Bengal, understands the prime importance of studying Microbiology in post Covid-19 era.Our moto is to cultivate the scientists hi

Vaccine designers are here to insert death nails into Coronavirus’s coffin

The coronavirus has put the world on tenterhooks and crippled the medical service across the globe. But the time has finally come to bring a sigh of relief; the vaccine designers are here to fire the final fatal shots against the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Deriving its name from its crown like appearance, Covid-19 belong to the same group of virus as the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (beta Cov lineage B) and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (beta Cov Lineage C). SARS which had its outbreak in China, caused pandemic in 2002 and MERS showed its emergence almost a decade laterwreaked havoc in the Middle-East in 2012. While the first Covid-19 case was detected in China’s Wuhan province around December in 2019, it is presumed that the virus had spread from Wuhan’s sea food market. Covid-19 and SARS-CoV shares same binding affinity for the host cell receptor- angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and share similar pathogenesis fo

How does one cover the educational gap for class 12 and final year students due to the pandemic disruption?

The COVID 19 pandemic is going to change the dynamics of how education is imparted through the schooling system. In the present scenario, the conventional process of teaching students through classroom teaching is no longer feasible, since, under no condition, a nation can afford to jeopardize the lives of its youth, a nation’s most valued resource, by allowing congregation in such system of classroom teaching. On the brighter side, this situation has paved way to revamp the educational set-up that has been long over-due. A radical reconstruction of the educational system should now entail conceptual exercises that don’t require rote memorization and lay more stress on pragmatic understanding, exercises and easy translation for developing life-skills. It is also high time that norm-referenced paper-pencil tests make way for non-judicious memory-based answering system.  Class 12 and final year students can be evaluated online, and on that basis, they can start with module courses of the

What are the direct impacts of Covid19 for the future of engineering?

The pandemic is in some sense a blessing in disguise. It has exposed the systemic weaknesses of nations in handling disasters of scale in real time. The developed nations, despite their financial power and strengths of technology have taken a bigger hit as compared to the lesser privileged ones. The lessons for India are in the recognition of the combined failure of our systems, including political, administration, health care services, supply chain management, identification of hotspots, prediction in the spread and reach of the pandemic and in damage control. The need for massive technical efforts in reliable data collection and live updation, data processing and mining for inferencing, capability for rapid manufacturing of support devices such as protective gears, personal hygiene products, ventilators, supply chain logistics of essential services and many more. The primary strengths of India are in its human resources, numerical strength of qualified professionals, capacity for R &

What are the major issues and impediments to engineering education and engineering profession in India?

The major impediments to engineering in India are a) highly empowered regulatory bodies who are not in sync with ground reality, b) misplaced priority for managers instead of resource creators, c) concern for quantity against quality, d) aversion to R & D and innovation, e) lack of transparency and accountability, f) problem solving mostly in reactive mode, g) decision making based on populist notions in place of scientific evaluation, h) belief in myths against reality, and rampant corruption in the system. Centralized control has a negative correlation for creativity and innovation in all fields of life, be it music, sports, fine arts, science, engineering or others. The same applies to education in general and engineering in particular. The effectiveness and impact of national bodies engaged in education and R &D, such as UGC, AICTE, DST, DBT, CSIR and others are questionable. The poor status of the universities and research laboratories which had excellent reputation a

Can Indian engineers innovate and create new technology at par with their contemporaries elsewhere?

The competence of our scientists and engineers at the world level is another fact that cannot be taken lightly. All the big international players, be it in software, hardware or applications, such as Google, Microsoft, Apple, Intel, Amazon and others, whose leadership position in business depends on sustained innovation, have a large presence of Indians  in their front-line research groups. Most of them have been trained in India at least up to their undergraduate level and may have acquired graduate degree subsequently from abroad. Tens of thousands of these Indians, many with doctoral qualifications, have been a major contributor in innovation of technology in their respective organizations. This excludes   chief executives like Satya Nadela or Sundar Pichai who also head their respective organizations. The success of ISRO in their space missions is a proof that a small group of dedicated professionals, scientists and engineers, despite their meagre financial support and minimal reso

What are employability prospects of a fresh engineering graduate?

New avenues have opened up for engineering graduates but they need to arm themselves with additional skills beyond those acquired directly in their core area. Engineering concepts and practices from design and system engineering, ability to design experiments, model real life systems, optimize resource utilization and performance, have a long shelf life. Certain additional skills are now a part of every engineering profession, such as a) proficiency in analytical thinking, b) ability to collect, process mine data for information extraction - domain of data science, c) programming skills in a few languages such as java, python, MATLAB, d) acquire soft skills in verbal and written communication, and e) ability to function in the role of a solution provider. If the provision for learning these is not included in the curriculum, then you need to find alternate sources that impart quality training and certification, such as NPTEL, MOOCS, Coursera and acquire them. Those interested to move t

How to choose a branch and institute for admission to engineering?

This question is misplaced as it does not have a unique answer that satisfies all. With the exception of a few thousand top rank holders, the vast majority have limited options. The popularity of a branch in India is driven to a large extent by social beliefs, peer pressure, legacy issues, and perceived notions about the value of a graduate in that branch as compared to the native interest and competence of the prospective student. The value may be complex function of salary, perks, extra earnings, social respect, authority, etc. The popularity of the IAS examination among engineering and medical graduates, including those from IIT and AIIMS, is an evidence to this effect. We recommend the following process. While all institutes may not be at the same level, it is a fact that all branches of engineering are equally challenging and intellectually rewarding, just as “ beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder”. The parameters that are usually considered for arriving at a decision are a)

What is Engineering ?

Engineering consists of artful, skilled and sophisticated scientific ways of design, manufacture and use of engines, machines, structures, both in hardware and software forms. Prof. B. B Chowdhury, Machine INteligence Unit, Indian Statistical Institute (ISI Kolkata), IEEE Fellow, Pro Vice Chancelor, Techno India University, West Bengal

What is Engineering?

Various applications of philosophy leading to possible improvement of society and the world as a whole is technology. By the word philosophy one means science, arts, commerce etc. and even spirituality. Engineering is choosing appropriate available technology (one or more) and translating into products for beneficial usage by society and the world as a whole. Prof. Ajay Chakraborty Professor Department of Electronics & Telecommunication IIT Kharagpur Dean Of Research, Techno India University, West Bengal


The Annual Convocation of Techno India University, West Bengal was a historic and grand occasion that established new dimensions of success and inspiration for the students and the society. The ceremony was graced by Bharat Ratna Shri Pranab Mukherjee, former President of India, as the Chief Guest along with the Governor of West Bengal, Shri Kesari Nath Tripathi as Guest-of-Honour and Padma Shree Professor Bimal Roy on the same dais. The ceremony was inaugurated by lighting of the lamp and followed by our National Anthem in the august gathering of thousands of students and eminent personalities. The convocation speech was addressed by the honorable Chief Guest, Shri Pranab Mukherjee where he emphasized on the need for our education system to re-orient the students to become "risk-takers and innovation makers" and propel the nation towards glory. The ceremony was presided over by a host of dignitaries including the Directors of IIT-Kharagpur, ISI-Kolkata, NIT-D

Opportunity and Future of Genetic Science & Engineering in Medical field

Ground-breaking claims have been made globally with respect to the influence of genetics on medicine. The greatest breakthrough in the history of genetics has been the Human Genome Project which has provided the world with the human genetic blueprint comprising of approximately 25000 genes. Scientists are using genetics to study single-cell diseases that are rare and thus find a cure using gene therapy which might be able to correct these rare diseases. Various diseases like cancer, obesity-related diseases, and diabetes are multifaceted for which the underlying genetic mechanisms and interactions are being constantly studied. Progressions in genetic science have made a huge impact on the study of how an individual’s reaction to a particular drug depends on the genetic makeup of that individual (pharmacogenomics).  The science behind genetic predisposition of an individual to a particular disorder will hold the future of medicine. Huge speculations suggest genetic science can act as t

Difference Between Organic and Inorganic Chemistry?

Organic chemistry deals mainly with carbon and hydrogen containing non-polar molecules with few exceptions. The reactions of the molecules do not include any metals from the periodic tables. Movements of electron between the carbon-hydrogen bonds, and understanding of the bond breaking and the bond makings are an integral part of organic chemistry. It deals with few laws which will help us to understand the electronic distribution during a reaction. Whereas, Inorganic chemistry deals with molecules which doest not have carbon atom. The organic molecules are generally found from biological sources. for example, benzene is an organic compound and its reactions with other organic or inorganic molecules depend on the understanding of the electronic distribution throughout the reaction and how the bond breaking and bond making happening. Whereas, water is an inorganic molecule as it does not contain any carbon atoms and is polar. Dr. Arunabh Sengupta Research Coordinator, Te

What is Chemistry?

CHEMISTRY is C (Carbon) H (Hydrogen) and E (Energy) and to understand the MISTRY (Mistery) between them. In general, it is a branch of science that helps us to understand the relationships between one matter with other matters and with energy. The definition of this word may be simple but the understanding is not. It deals with matters - all earthly matters. That includes all the things in our surrounding that has mass and takes up space - that is anything that is physically real. Chemistry helps us to and study matters- what it consists of, it's properties and how it changes and why it changes. Conventionally Chemistry is divided in four parts, i.e. Inorganic, Organic, Physical and Analytical Chemistry. But in reality, it has only qualitative and quantitative division. There is no distinction between the inorganic, organic, physical or analytical portion of chemistry. Dr. Arunabh Sengupta Research Coordinator, Techno India University, West Bengal, Post Doctoral Fellow,

New Frontier in B.Sc Programme

Science is one of the most popular streams for studies and some of the most demanding course choices are the Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) programmes. Along with some of the best Government Universities and Institutes such as IIT, ISI, Jadavpur University, Calcutta University, Presidency University, Lady Brabourne College, Scottish Church College, Bethune College and others, several private institutes like Loreto College, St. Xavier’s College, Techno India University, WB are leading ones for Graduation Courses in Science. Pursuing a degree in B.Sc. provides great employment opportunities in the field of research and development sector, and if added with M.Sc., it can give great career boost. Therefore, choosing an institute with well-equipped laboratories and research opportunities for higher studies should be benchmark because after Graduation in Science planning for a Post Graduation is very essential to have a lucrative career. In recent times, Techno India University, West Benga

Implementation of Genetic Algorithm in the Coming Era

Implementation of Genetic Algorithm in the Coming Era Standard statistical methods have failed to completely analyse the abundant amount of information buried within various research data. Hence, metaheuristic algorithms are being developed and utilized for generating optimal solutions to complicated data assessment and meaningful results within a short time span. A major type of metaheuristic algorithm that is being used at presentin various sectors include genetic algorithm (GA) stirred by Mendel’s laws of inheritance. Similar to the evolution process, GA functions on numerous individuals (random solutions) and produce superior (more fit) solutions after merging improved properties (chromosomes) of existing individuals. Genetic algorithm can be implemented largely in the coming age to unravel problems of annotation in genomics. GA can be used in gene finding, multiple alignment, disease risk modelling and prediction of promoter regions.New genetic algorithms are being constantly d

How can I choose my graduation project? I study electronics and communications engineering and I’m interested in the field of IC design.

In the field of IC design it is presumed that one is refering to digital IC design.To do a project in this area one should go through the prerequisites i.e.analog circuits theory and lab,digital circuits theory and lab,VLSI design theory and simulation lab.One should be thorough in VERILOG,VHDL programming etc.Understanding of mos and cmos circuits is very important.For IC design one should be thorough on the usage of one of the following tools i.e.Synopsis,Cadence,Mentographics,Siemens,TI etc.One may have good understanding of the usage of one of the tools but at the same time one should gather fair knowledge of the utility and limitations of the other tools in use elsewhere.Since Fab facility one should go for FPGA implementation.Keeping all these in mind one has to look for suitable computing resources,lack of which may create a hindrance to do the project.Apart from this one should understand digital IC design project in the perspective of similar areas i.e.analog ic design,rfic d

Pandemic COVID-19 outbreak

Within two decades of surfacing of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002 - 2003, a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, this is the third time that another fatal virus, coronavirus 2019 ( COVID-19 ) has been detected in Dec 2019 in Wuhan, China. The world is confronting this emergency. Internationally, Public Health Emergency has been declared by the World Health Organization(WHO) on 30 th Jan 2020 . Pandemic COVID-19 infections are analysed on the basis of the number of cases in million people per day, thereby calling for public health emergency . COVID-19 is an enveloped RNA virus having surface spikes and has a wide host range. This can fly. Geographic locations, age, and sex are not the bar of infections. Its mean incubation period is 5.2 days . Key  symptoms are fever, cough associated with pneumonia. Bilateral multiple lung lobes in the lower and/or periphery position observed by the Chest CT scan . It has to pay attention to the

Significance of developing Internet infrastructure for our future world.

Significance of developing Internet infrastructure for our future world. We are well acquainted with the proverbial saying, “Necessity is the mother of Invention” which conveys the idea that dire need  fuels innovation. This saying comes to life when we take into account the tumultuous  situation of  the World War II that had aroused the realisation  regarding the pressing need of development of communication technology, and it was during that crisis period, that the world had witnessed new innovations in the field of communication. Much like that, the recent outbreak of Covid -19 has not only immersed the world in a harrowing anguish and misery, but has also ushered in new challenges for survival. In this situation, to evade complete stagnation, professionals of various sectors have resorted to the novel ideas of using the online platform for their assignments. By virtue of which we are experiencing countless innovative ways of using the virtual medium  to work from home and this has

The SARS-CoV-2 Structure – An Excerpt

The SARS-CoV-2 Structure – An Excerpt                                  Viruses are submicroscopic infectious particles with a seemingly simpler structure – a genetic material surrounded by a shell mainly composed of proteins. But deep down, they are not that simple at all. The causative agent of recent global pandemic of pneumonia like syndrome or COVID-19 is caused by a newly discovered virus of corona virus family and is nomenclatured as severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus or SARS-CoV-2. It is a spherical virus of approximately 120 nm in diameter. They have RNA as their genetic material. It is this RNA genome that enables them to hijack the human cell machinery to perpetuate themselves by creating a tsunami of new virus particles. The virus latches itself on ACE-2 receptor present in human lower respiratory tract by its spike proteins and starts its journey in the human body. Sugars dot the outside of these spikes, just like sugars dot the outside of human cells. The virus

It's the time to enrich our knowledge.

It's the time to enrich our knowledge.  In this modern world, our humdrum existence can be defined as a race against time where we are in an endless pursuit of executing our routine works, catering to the needs of our families, fulfilling our job targets and trying to fit it all within the limited twenty four hours of a day. Ironically, it seems as if we spend more time in public transport stuck in a busy traffic than with our family members. So amidst this time constraint, we hardly get any opportunity to nurture our inner passion or desire to enrich our knowledge through the exploration of the unknown. This has lead to the stagnation of our intellectual emancipation. We often surrender before this trying situation turning a blind eye to the silver lining present in form of several online courses promising endless opportunities  through which we can enhance our knowledge base by utilizing those hours stuck in bad traffic productively by  going through the plethora of new

What is the main difference between Computer science field & Electronics and Communication field?

What is the main difference between Computer science field & Electronics and Communication field? More than fifty percent is overlapping. In electronics the rest is physics and hardware based subjects on semiconductors ,microelectronics,pòwerelectronics,rf,electromagnetics,communication systems with hardware labs which are highly capital intensive and need frequent modernisation. Because of this most of the universities,the quality of teaching is below mark in electronics engineering.This also explains the lack of interest of the aspirants to opt for electronics engineering.  A few years back Communication Engineering was at the apex position of demand but now Top rank holders are preferring Computer Science over the other courses. Is it because of the rising IT Industry Demand? In this situation what do you think about the Electronics Stream? This is true for most of the state universities and private universities for lack of flexibilities in rheir curriculum in Ind